Waitangi is a small coastal settlement in Northland, home to the hapū Ngāti Rāhiri and Ngāti Kawa of Ngāpuhi. Waitangi was known for its water-based protein resources (fish and shellfish) as well as extensive gardens. The islands just off shore from the beach also were places for collecting shellfish like purewha or small mussels. Waitangi itself had kainga and cultivations like at Te Tii where the marae of the same name is, along with Kaipatiki and Tapu Point which were close by.
Inland there were many small kainga and gardens as well such as below Te Arakanihi pa not far from Haruru where there were taro gardens that were part of a wider taro cultivation network that covered other nearby kainga like Te Puke (also called Mount Bledisloe), Te Pukewhao and Te Unuwhao. Many cultivation sites lay next to the Waitangi River near at least two kāinga between Waitangi and Haruru, and whare (houses) were also located just above the Haruru Falls. And further inland up the Waitangi river were kāinga or pā such as at Waikakaho (near the mouth of the Waipuakakaho stream), Pukeawha, Pairatahi, and Puketutu. There was a well-known tuna or eel trap at Puketutu. Motumaire was known for its cockle beds.